The module aims to cover all fundamental areas of power system engineering, from generation, transmission and distribution of electricity to network control, protection and fault diagnosis. The module includes basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance; cable performance, insulation; distribution systems; bus impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of over-current, differential and distance protection; protection and circuit breakers; system stability concepts and safety issues. The important contemporary topic of the Smart Grids is introduced which represents the required intelligence of the power system to be able to harness the variable renewable energy sources and to allow micro-generation, with bidirectional energy flows.

The report should contain the results obtained for the base case load flow analysis of standard IEEE-6 and IEEE-33 test bus systems. At first, each network should be modelled using the Power World/Simulator 18 software. In that, the student is expected to model all the generations, loads and transmission/distribution lines properly. The simulation results for busbar voltages, busbar angles, power flows in lines, power losses in lines, overall power losses etc. should be presented in separate tables for both networks. Then the cost of power generation should be hand calculated and verification needs to be done using the simulation results for cost of operation for each network separately. As the final part of the report, the student should address the questions given in Discussion section by applying the practical knowledge obtained from the module. This will assess the basic principles of the above topics and the ability to apply the knowledge of power flow analysis

(a) Model the IEEE-6 bus test system as given in the following diagram. The network parameters are given in Appendix I.

(b) Perform the power flow analysis in the Simulator 18 software using the Full Newton (i.e. Newton Raphson) method and obtain results for Bus admittance matrix, busbar voltages, busbar angles, power flow in lines (active and reactive power), line losses (active and reactive power) and total active and reactive power loss. The values obtained should be presented in separate tables for each parameter specified in the question.

(c) If the generator connected to slack bus (i.e. Bus 1) has parameters of value C=0.09, B=50 and A=100, calculate the cost of operation of the generation in $/â„Ž. (d) Verify the value obtained for the cost of power generation using the simulation results of Simulator 18.

(a) Model the IEEE-33 bus test system as given in the following diagram. The network parameters are given in Appendix II.

(b) Perform the power flow analysis in the Simulator 18 software using the Full Newton (i.e. Newton Raphson) method and obtain results for Bus admittance matrix, busbar voltages, busbar angles, power flow in lines (active and reactive power), line losses (active and reactive power) and total active and reactive power loss. The values obtained should be presented in separate tables for each parameter specified in the question.

(c) If the generator connected to slack bus (i.e. Bus 1) has parameters of value C=0.065, B=15 and A=100, calculate the cost of operation of the generation in $/đť’‰.

(d) Verify the value obtained for the cost of power generation using the simulation results of Simulator 18.

(e) Now, integrate a separate generator at bus 18. Assume this as a Distributed Generation (DG) unit which has a capacity of 400kW. Then repeat part (b) of this question.

(f) Increase the DG capacity in steps of 100kW until the DG capacity is 2.5 MW. In each step note down the total active power loss in the network.

(g) Using the values obtained for total active power loss, plot the DG capacity (X-axis) vs Total active power loss in the network (Y-axis). Thus, by using the graph plot estimate the DG capacity which gives the minimum active power loss when the new generator was integrated at bus 18.

(h) Name 5 constraints generally considered when performing the optimal power flow (OPF) studies relating to maintaining power system reliability, quality and protection of cables and transformers etc.

This assessment satisfies the following learning outcomes as specified in your Module Guide. It is the studentsâ€™ responsibility to familiarize themselves with the Universityâ€™s policies on plagiarism and use of unfair means contained within the Student handbook.

LO4 Critically evaluate the contexts in which electrical power systems and smart grids control theory can be applied, (e.g. operation and management, technology development). (P3)

LO5 Critically appraise the commercial and economic context of power system/smart grid processes. (S1)