explain why it is difficult to determine how much it really occurs in today’s society.

Using Chapter 9 in Zastrow, Kirst-Ashman and Hessenauer (2019), supplemented by an additional academic source, it`s challenging to determine the true prevalence of sexual harassment in today`s society. Sexual harassment is defined as unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. Several factors contribute to the difficulty in accurately gauging its occurrence. Firstly, many instances of sexual harassment go unreported due to fear of retaliation, disbelief, or shame, leading to underestimations in official statistics (Zastrow et al., 2019). Additionally, the subjective nature of what constitutes sexual harassment can vary among individuals and cultures, making it challenging to establish universal criteria for identification and reporting. Social norms and power dynamics within institutions may also discourage victims from coming forward, further obscuring the true extent of the problem (Dziech & Weiner, 1990). Finally, advancements in technology and changes in social dynamics have introduced new forms of sexual harassment, such as cyber harassment, which may not be adequately captured by traditional reporting mechanisms (Chesley & Matyok, 2019).

In a workplace or educational setting, sexual harassment can manifest in various forms, including quid pro quo harassment, where employment or academic decisions are contingent upon sexual favors, and hostile environment harassment, creating a hostile or intimidating atmosphere through unwelcome sexual conduct (EEOC, 2021). Surveys and statistics indicate widespread prevalence, with a significant proportion of individuals reporting experiencing sexual harassment at some point in their lives (Fitzgerald et al., 1988). The effects of sexual harassment on victims can be profound, leading to psychological distress, diminished self-esteem, and even physical health consequences (Gruber et al., 2008). Certain groups, such as women, LGBTQ+ individuals, and people of color, are disproportionately affected by sexual harassment due to intersecting forms of discrimination and power differentials (Cortina et al., 2018).

Addressing sexual harassment requires a multi-faceted approach involving both individual and societal interventions. Empowering individuals to recognize and report harassment, implementing comprehensive policies and training programs in institutions, and fostering a culture of accountability and respect are crucial steps in confronting this pervasive issue (McDonald & Charlesworth, 2015). Furthermore, challenging harmful gender norms and power imbalances that perpetuate harassment is essential for creating safer environments for all individuals.

As for personal beliefs, I do perceive sexual harassment as a widespread problem, considering the numerous barriers to reporting and the prevalence of harassment across various contexts. This belief is supported by empirical evidence and the experiences shared by individuals within my social circles and broader society. While I haven`t personally experienced sexual harassment, I acknowledge its prevalence and advocate for systemic changes to address it effectively.

Regarding the question about guiding children`s toy choices based on social expectations versus allowing them to explore freely, I believe in striking a balance. Children should have the freedom to explore toys based on their individual preferences and interests, regardless of societal expectations regarding gendered toys. Encouraging open-ended play and exposing children to a diverse range of toys can foster creativity, cognitive development, and critical thinking skills (Blakemore & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). However, it`s also important to recognize and challenge gender stereotypes that may influence children`s toy preferences, ensuring that all toys are accessible and promoted regardless of gender. By promoting inclusivity and diversity in toy choices, we can empower children to develop their identities authentically while challenging harmful gender norms.

If we didn`t guide children toward socially acceptable toy choices based on their gender, it could potentially lead to greater diversity in toy preferences and play behaviors. Without rigid gender expectations dictating their choices, children may feel more liberated to explore a wider range of toys and activities, ultimately fostering greater creativity and individuality.

Not socially guiding children toward gender-appropriate toys doesn`t necessarily mean they`ll miss out on discovering their true identity. True identity is multifaceted and goes beyond mere toy preferences. Allowing children to explore a variety of toys and play experiences can actually enhance their understanding of themselves and their interests, free from the constraints of gender stereotypes.

The guidance provided to children regarding toy choices can serve as both a normalizing force and a source of pressure to conform to gender norms. While some guidance may offer helpful suggestions and facilitate socialization, excessive emphasis on gendered toys can limit children`s opportunities for self-expression and exploration. It`s crucial to approach guidance with sensitivity and openness, ensuring that children feel supported in their choices while challenging harmful stereotypes.

In the "Big Think Interview with Lise Eliot," it`s noted that at age 1, both boys and girls show interest in dolls due to their attraction to faces and voices. However, as children grow older, they may become more influenced by societal expectations regarding gendered toys, leading to preferences for toys typically associated with their gender. This shift likely occurs as children become more aware of societal norms and expectations, influencing their toy choices accordingly.

Children typically begin to understand their gender identity around the age of 2 or 3, as they become more aware of their own bodies and the differences between boys and girls (Gelman et al., 2004). This understanding is influenced by a combination of biological, social, and cognitive factors, including language development and socialization experiences. By observing and interacting with others, children gradually develop a sense of their own gender identity, which may align with or diverge from societal expectations.

Yes, I have personally observed differences between boys and girls in their toy choices. In my experience, boys often gravitate toward toys traditionally associated with masculinity, such as trucks and action figures, while girls may prefer toys like dolls and dress-up items. However, it`s important to note that these preferences can vary widely among individuals, and children may also enjoy a diverse range of toys regardless of gender norms. By promoting inclusivity and offering a variety of toys, we can create environments where all children feel empowered to explore their interests freely.