Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides that are produced by certain bacteria to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Initially, bacteriocins were produced by E. coli as early as 1925, these substances were named colicins. The colicins were used as the prototype bacteriocins from which all other bacteriocin analysis was compared Nisin produced by Lactococcus lactis was discovered soon after, in 1928, followed by subtilin an analog of nisin, in 1948.
Since then the area of bacteriocin research has been studied intensely. However, detailed knowledge of bacteriocins is limited to a relatively small number of producing species of bacteria. Staphylococcus warneri is known to produce bacteriocins, which are believed to play a role in the bacteria’s competitive interactions with other microorganisms in its environment. Studies have shown that S. warneri produces several different types of bacteriocins, including lantibiotics and non-lantibiotics.
Lantibiotics are a class of bacteriocins that contain unusual amino acids such as lanthionine and methyl methionine, which are formed by posttranslational modification of the peptide. Non-lantibiotics, on the other hand, do not contain these unusual amino acids. The bacteriocins produced by S. warneri have been shown to have activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria, including other staphylococcal species such as Staphylococcus aureus. Some studies have also suggested that S. warneri bacteriocins may have potential as alternative antimicrobial agents for use in medical and food industries. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action of S. warneri bacteriocins and their potential applications.