Unit 3 Cyber Security, BTEC Higher Nationals in Digital Technologies

Unit 3 Cyber Security, BTEC Higher Nationals in Digital Technologies

Assignment - Cybercrime and Cyber Threat Actors: An In-Depth Exploration

Learning Outcome 1: Explore the nature of cybercrime and cyber threat actors
Learning Outcome 2: Investigate cyber security threats and hazards.

Transferable skills and competencies developed
Computing-related cognitive skills
Evaluating the severity and potential impact of threats.
Understanding the fundamentals of tracking digital fingerprints, assessing compromised systems, and gathering cybercrime evidence.
Analyzing potential vulnerabilities and predicting possible future attack vectors.
Understanding the ethical boundaries of cybersecurity, especially concerning digital privacy and surveillance.
Critical analysis on investigation findings.
Analyzing facts and circumstances to determine the cause of a problem and identifying and selecting appropriate solutions
Research for evidence-based decision making
Conceptual and critical thinking, analysis, synthesis and evaluation

Support, manage and communicate change by identifying barriers and overcoming them
Producing reports, providing management information based on the collation, analysis and interpretation of data.

Computing-related practical skills
Handling breaches, mitigating damage, and ensuring swift recovery.
Setting up firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and understanding network topologies to prevent breaches.
Dissecting malware to understand its functionality, origin, and potential damage.
Actively probing systems for vulnerabilities as a form of proactive defense.
Proficiency with software like Wireshark, Metasploit, or antivirus systems.
Knowledge of encryption and decryption methods to protect data integrity.

Generic skills for employability
Ability to convey complex cybersecurity issues in understandable terms to non-tech staff or clients.
Working seamlessly with IT teams, managerial staff, and outside consultants.
Quickly finding solutions during security incidents.
Prioritizing tasks, setting timelines, and overseeing the implementation of security protocols or responses to incidents.
Acting with integrity and ensuring that all actions align with legal standards and ethical guideline.
The cybersecurity landscape is ever-evolving. Professionals should be committed to ongoing education and staying updated with the latest threats and mitigation strategies.
Adjusting to new technologies, threats, and methodologies in the dynamic world of cybersecurity.

Vocational scenario


Ovex Technologies seamlessly blends technology and human expertise to cater to diverse business needs. Serving as a trusted partner, Ovex specializes in offering comprehensive customer contact centre solutions, ensuring effective and smooth client interactions tailored to individual business requirements. Their dedicated accounting services employ expert accountants, familiar with contemporary tools and practices, guaranteeing accuracy, timeliness, and utmost confidentiality. Ovex`s IT helpdesk support is renowned for its 24/7 availability and its adeptness at promptly resolving a vast range of IT concerns. With a commendable tenure of over 13 years in the industry, Ovex Technologies` extensive experience stands testament to its consistent delivery and commitment to service excellence. As an innovation-driven entity, Ovex continuously updates its technological tools and methodologies, ensuring clients receive the best and latest in business solutions. For entities seeking a reliable ally to navigate modern business challenges, Ovex Technologies emerges as a paramount choice.

You are employed as a junior cyber security analyst at Ovex Technologies, your role is to safeguard the company`s digital assets, client projects, and sensitive data from cyber threats and attacks. Your expertise plays a pivotal role in maintaining the company`s reputation and ensuring the security of its client projects.

Your document must have the following required findings;
Importance of Cyber Security on Ovex Technologies
Understanding Cyber Threat Actors in Ovex Technologies
Investigation of Cyber Security Threats and Hazards for Ovex Technologies
These requirements can be completed over by completing the tasks given in activity section.

Activity 1: Types of Malicious and Criminal Cyber Activity

To create the document, you are required to do research and development tasks and discuss them using evidences and tables which ensures illustrations and are easy to understand.

Following subsections are needed in this section of the document;
To achieve P1, you need to review types of malicious and/or criminal cyber activity scenarios within Ovex Technologies.
Types of Malicious or Cyber Criminal Activities
Explain different types of malicious or criminal cyber activity.
Types of malicious activities include phishing, identity theft, botnet, cyber stalking, cyber bullying, ransomware, denial of service attack, malware.
Write 75 words for each activity with an example considering scenario of Ovex Technologies.

Review Types of Malicious or Cyber Criminal Activities
As a junior cybersecurity analyst at Ovex Technologies, your role is to comprehend various types of malicious cyber activities. For each category, you are to gather or generate evidence illustrating the nature of these threats. For this you need to work on the following scenarios to create evidence and review each malicious activity after performing a sample task for it.
Phishing Attack:
Task: Analyse a simulated phishing email targeted towards Ovex Technologies employees. Identify the red flags that suggest it`s a phishing attempt.
Evidence Required: An annotated screenshot of the phishing email highlighting suspicious elements.
Ransomware Attack:
Task: Simulate a ransomware detection on a virtual environment. Determine the strain of ransomware and potential decryption methods.
Evidence Required: Screenshots of the ransom note and detection tools pinpointing the ransomware strain.
Malware Infection:
Task: Investigate a potentially compromised Ovex Technologies workstation for signs of malware. Use malware scanning tools.
Evidence Required: Scan results report showcasing any detected threats.

iv) Denial of Service Attack
Task: Monitor network traffic to Ovex`s servers. Detect any unusual spikes in requests which might indicate a DoS attack.
Evidence Required: A graph of network traffic showcasing the spike, along with associated IP addresses.
To achieve P2, you need to investigate the potential targets of cybercrime within Ovex Technologies.
As a junior cybersecurity analyst at Ovex Technologies, your mission is to identify and assess potential targets within the organization that might attract cybercriminals. For each identified target, evidence must be produced to demonstrate its vulnerability or its appeal to threat actors. You need to fulfil the following tasks with required evidences in order to complete the investigation process.
Investigating Potential Targets within Ovex Technologies
Company Websites and Web Applications

Task: Conduct a vulnerability assessment on Ovex`s primary website and any associated web applications.
Evidence Required: Report of detected vulnerabilities, their severity, and potential implications.
Employee Communication Channels
Task: Analyse common communication platforms used within Ovex, such as email or internal chat applications, for potential phishing or social engineering attempts.
Evidence Required: Screenshots of suspicious communications or simulated phishing attempts, along with an annotated analysis.
Customer Data Repositories
Task: Review the security measures protecting customer data, focusing on databases and cloud storage solutions.
Evidence Required: A security assessment report detailing current protections, potential weak points, and suggested enhancements.
Employee Personal Devices (BYOD Policy)
Task: Investigate the risks associated with employees using personal devices for work purposes, especially if Ovex has a "Bring Your Own Device" policy.
Evidence Required: A list of potential risks associated with BYOD and examples of past incidents (simulated or real) within similar organizations.
Physical Access to Critical Infrastructure
Task: Assess the physical security measures in place at Ovex facilities, focusing on areas housing critical servers or sensitive information.
Evidence Required: A checklist of current physical security measures in place, areas of potential vulnerability, and suggestions for improvement.
After performing the sub tasks above, you are to write a summary in which you explain what you understand overall after investigating the potential targets of cybercrime within Ovex Technologies.
To achieve M1, you need to analyse the concept of digital systems as ‘targets` and ‘tools` as
related to cyber security, giving real-world examples.
Digital Systems as Targets and Tools within Ovex Technologies
As prospective junior cybersecurity analysts at Ovex Technologies, you are tasked with understanding the nuances of how digital systems function both as `targets` and `tools` within the
cybersecurity domain. Drawing from the backdrop of Ovex Technologies, you should supplement their findings with real-world examples to fortify their understanding.
Digital Systems as `Targets` within Ovex Technologies
Ovex`s Corporate Websites and Web Applications
Task: Students must research real-world attacks on similar corporate websites and web applications. How might such an attack impact Ovex?
Evidence Required: A brief report highlighting a notable incident, the company involved, the nature of the attack, and potential implications for Ovex.
Ovex`s Cloud Storage Solutions
Task: Investigate breaches or vulnerabilities associated with cloud storage platforms similar to those used by Ovex Technologies.
Evidence Required: A summary discussing the cloud provider targeted, the breach method, and potential repercussions for Ovex if faced with a similar situation.
Digital Systems as `Tools` for Ovex Technologies
Penetration Testing Tools at Ovex
Task: Explore real-world scenarios where companies of Ovex`s stature employed penetration testing tools to fortify their defenses. How did these tools help, and what lessons can Ovex learn?
Evidence Required: A detailed analysis of the tools used, the challenges addressed, and takeaways for Ovex.
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) at Ovex
Task: Research real-world incidents where IDS played a pivotal role in detecting or thwarting cyber threats at companies similar to Ovex.
Evidence Required: A case synopsis highlighting the detected threat, the IDS`s response, and recommendations for Ovex`s own IDS protocols.
To achieve P3, you need to describe the security threats and hazards to a system or service or process within Ovex Technologies.
For this you need to complete the following tasks listed below:
Hazards and Security Threats in System of Ovex Technologies
Describe security threats and hazards within Ovex Technologies that may exist within a system or process or service.
The processes could be emailing correspondence, financial transactions, networking, collaborative work documents, global modes/means of communication within the scenario of Ovex Technologies.
The threats and hazards include cyber threat actors like cyber criminals, hacktivist terrorists etc., active and passive attacks like missing data encryption, drive-by attack, phishing and spear phishing main in the middle attack, Denial of service attack, Eavesdropping attack, Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs).
You must describe them in detail with the real-life example of different companies and competing it the scenario of Ovex Technologies that how it p prevents it from such hazards.
To achieve P4, you need to investigate common attack techniques and recommend how to defend against them in the context of Ovex Technologies.
Investigating Common Attack Techniques

Social Engineering & Phishing Attacks
Task: Study the mechanics of a typical phishing attack and identify potential avenues through which employees at Ovex might be targeted (e.g., email, messaging apps).
Evidence Required: A report outlining potential phishing vectors relevant to Ovex and recommended best practices to educate employees.
Malware & Ransomware Attacks
Task: Investigate common malware distribution channels that might affect Ovex`s operational systems, including ransomware mechanisms.
Evidence Required: An analysis detailing how malware or ransomware might infiltrate Ovex`s systems, alongside preventive and responsive measures.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks

Task: Understand the nature of DDoS attacks and analyze the potential risks to Ovex`s online services.
Evidence Required: A simulation or case study explaining how Ovex`s services might be affected and the steps to counteract such threats.
Considering these basic common attacks, now you have to provide a recommendation section which should include the following points
Review the current cybersecurity policy of Ovex Technologies.
Identify areas in the policy that may be outdated or lacking.
Suggest areas for potential improvement based on recent cybersecurity best practices.
List out all cybersecurity tools currently used by Ovex.
Check the latest versions and updates of these tools against what`s installed.
Recommend updates, patches, or potential new tools to enhance protection.
Analyze any past incidents at Ovex Technologies, if available.
Compare findings to Ovex`s current cybersecurity strategies.
Prioritize identified vulnerabilities and areas of improvement.
For each vulnerability, propose a clear and actionable recommendation.
Create a summary of all recommendations, ensuring clarity and feasibility in the context of Ovex Technologies.
To achieve M2, you need to assess the role of threat intelligence when defending against common attack techniques.
Assessing role of Threat Intelligence in Ovex Technologies

Introduction to Threat Intelligence
Subtask 1: Research the basic principles and components of threat intelligence.
Subtask 2: Document how threat intelligence differs from general security measures and why it`s essential for modern businesses.
Mapping Threat Intelligence to Common Attack Techniques
Subtask 1: List down common attack techniques that Ovex Technologies might be vulnerable to.
Subtask 2: For each attack technique, identify corresponding threat intelligence indicators that can detect or predict such attacks.
Real-time Threat Feeds and Ovex Technologies
Subtask 1: Investigate available real-time threat intelligence feeds that might be relevant for Ovex`s industry.
Subtask 2: Analyze how real-time feeds can enhance Ovex`s proactive defense mechanisms
against emerging threats.

Historical Analysis for Predictive Defense
Subtask 1: Review past security incidents at Ovex Technologies, if any.
Subtask 2: Using threat intelligence, identify patterns or trends that could have predicted these incidents.
Integrating Threat Intelligence into Ovex`s Cyber Defense
Subtask 1: Determine the current cybersecurity tools and solutions Ovex uses.
Subtask 2: Recommend ways to integrate threat intelligence feeds or platforms into these existing tools for enhanced defense.
Threat Intelligence Sharing and Collaboration
Subtask 1: Research industry-specific threat intelligence sharing platforms or consortiums. Subtask 2: Analyze the benefits and risks of Ovex Technologies joining or contributing to such platforms.
Continuous Improvement through Threat Intelligence
Subtask 1: Set up a monthly review process to analyze the latest threat intelligence and its relevance to Ovex.
Subtask 2: Propose a feedback loop where insights from threat intelligence are continuously integrated into Ovex`s defensive strategies.
To achieve D1, you need to evaluate the types of malicious cyber activity and the action that can be taken to neutralize cyber threat actors within Ovex Technologies environment.

Evaluation of Malicious Cyber Activities and Recommendations
You must answer all the points listed below and you must use headings to section each task.
List down the malicious cyber activities found so far which can occur within the process or systems of Ovex Technologies.
Recommend each action or generate security requirements to prevent the cyber threat actions within the system of Ovex Technologies.
Identify the threats and weaknesses of each recommendation listed above.
Evaluate alternate actions or approaches and their implications in the context of Ovex Technologies environment and working.
Draw a conclusion from the observations you collected.