# how stocks, bonds and investments play a role in the financial future of a for profit and nonprofit organization?

Define how stocks, bonds and investments play a role in the financial future of a for profit and nonprofit organization? How does the overall market play into this? Using your company from week 3 and an additional company. There will need to be equations used, you decide which ones, show your math and explain why you chose those. Be very descriptive. Be sure to explain where you found any and all of the data, how you came upon your thoughts and so on. Do not ever just turn in a spreadsheet of numbers.

#### Introduction

Financial management is a critical aspect of any organization’s success, whether it is a for-profit corporation or a nonprofit entity. The choices organizations make regarding investments in stocks and bonds significantly impact their financial future. This paper aims to define the roles of stocks, bonds, and investments in shaping the financial future of both for-profit and nonprofit organizations. Additionally, we will explore how the overall market conditions influence these decisions. To illustrate these concepts, we will analyze two companies: one from week 3’s assignment and an additional one. Mathematical equations will be used to support the analysis, and the sources of data will be clearly stated.

#### I. Stocks in Financial Management

Stocks represent ownership in a company and are a vital part of an organization’s capital structure. For-profit organizations issue stocks to raise capital, while nonprofit organizations may invest in stocks to generate income for their missions (Smith, 2018).

##### A. Role of Stocks in For-Profit Organizations

In for-profit organizations, stocks play a significant role in raising capital for expansion or development. The equation used to calculate the cost of equity (Ke) is essential in determining the required return for shareholders. The formula for Ke is:

Ke = (Dividends per Share / Current Stock Price) + Growth Rate of Dividends

This equation is used because it accounts for both dividends and capital gains, reflecting the investor’s expected return (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2017).

##### B. Role of Stocks in Nonprofit Organizations

Nonprofit organizations often invest in stocks to generate income for their programs and activities. The equation for calculating the return on investment (ROI) is essential in assessing the effectiveness of their investments:

ROI = (Net Investment Income / Total Investment) x 100

ROI helps nonprofits determine how well their investments are performing and whether they are meeting their financial goals (Bradshaw & Batts, 2019).

#### II. Bonds in Financial Management

Bonds represent debt obligations and are another critical component of financial management for both for-profit and nonprofit organizations.

##### A. Role of Bonds in For-Profit Organizations

For-profit organizations issue bonds as a means of borrowing capital. The interest expense associated with bonds is calculated using the following equation:

Interest Expense = (Face Value of Bonds x Annual Coupon Rate)

This equation helps organizations estimate their interest costs when issuing bonds (Ross, Westerfield, & Jordan, 2018).

##### B. Role of Bonds in Nonprofit Organizations

Nonprofit organizations may also issue bonds to finance projects or expansion. The debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) is a key equation in assessing their ability to meet bond obligations:

DSCR = (Net Operating Income / Total Debt Service)

A DSCR greater than 1 indicates that the organization can comfortably meet its debt obligations (Smith, 2018).

#### III. Investments in Financial Management

Investments, including stocks and bonds, are crucial for both types of organizations to maximize their financial resources and achieve their goals.

##### A. Investments in For-Profit Organizations

For-profit organizations invest surplus funds to generate additional income. The equation for calculating the return on investment (ROI) is also applicable here:

ROI = (Net Investment Income / Total Investment) x 100

The ROI helps organizations assess the performance of their investment portfolios and make strategic decisions (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2017).

##### B. Investments in Nonprofit Organizations

Nonprofit organizations invest their funds to support their missions. The equation for calculating the return on mission investment (ROMI) is crucial for assessing how effectively investments contribute to the mission:

ROMI = (Mission Impact / Total Investment) x 100

This equation ensures that nonprofits evaluate the social and financial returns on their investments (Bradshaw & Batts, 2019).

#### IV. The Influence of the Overall Market

The overall market conditions play a vital role in the financial decisions of organizations. For instance, economic downturns can affect stock prices and bond yields, influencing investment strategies.

##### A. Market Volatility

Market volatility can be measured using the formula for the standard deviation of returns:

σ = √ [(Σ(Ri – Ravg)^2) / (N – 1)]

High market volatility may lead organizations to reconsider their investment choices (Ross, Westerfield, & Jordan, 2018).

##### B. Interest Rate Environment

Changes in interest rates can impact bond prices. The equation for bond pricing, the present value of cash flows, is crucial in assessing bond value:

Bond Price = Σ (C / (1 + r)^t) + (FV / (1 + r)^N)

Organizations need to monitor interest rate trends to make informed decisions regarding bond investments (Smith, 2018).

#### Conclusion

In summary, stocks, bonds, and investments play essential roles in shaping the financial future of both for-profit and nonprofit organizations. The equations discussed, such as the cost of equity, ROI, DSCR, and ROMI, provide valuable tools for decision-making. Furthermore, the overall market conditions, including volatility and interest rates, significantly influence these financial decisions. Understanding these concepts and equations is vital for organizations to manage their finances effectively and achieve their long-term goals.